The Internet is very large and complex. But at a basic level, this is just a connection between different computers (not just personal ones). This connection is a network data transfer protocols – a set of rules that determines the order and features of information transfer for specific cases.
IP – Internet Protocol
The transmission protocol that was the first to connect individual computers into a single network. The most primitive on this list. It is unreliable, that is, it does not confirm the delivery of packets to the recipient and does not control the integrity of the data. The IP protocol transfers data without establishing a connection.
The main task of this protocol is the routing of datagrams, i.e., determining the path of data along the network nodes.
TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
It is a TCP and IP protocol stack. The first ensures and controls reliable data transmission and monitors its integrity. The second is responsible for routing to send data. The TCP protocol is often used by more complex protocols.
UDP – User Datagram Protocol
A protocol that provides data transfer without first creating a connection between them. This protocol is unreliable. In it, packages can not only not reach, but also arrive out of order or even be duplicated. The main advantage of the UDP protocol is the speed of data delivery. That is why applications sensitive to network delays often use this type of data transfer.
FTP – File Transfer Protocol
File transfer protocol. It was used back in 1971 – long before the appearance of the IP protocol. Currently, this protocol is used for remote access to hosting. FTP is a reliable protocol, so it guarantees data transfer.
This protocol works on the principle of a client-server architecture. The user is authenticated (although in some cases he can connect anonymously) and gets access to the server’s file system.
This is not only a Domain Name System, but also a protocol without which this system could not work. It allows client computers to query the DNS server for the IP address of a site, and also helps to exchange databases between DNS servers. This protocol also uses TCP and UDP.
HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol
Originally a protocol for transferring HTML documents. Now it is used to transmit arbitrary data on the Internet. It is a stateless client-server communication protocol. The client is most often a web browser, although it can be, for example, a search robot. The HTTP protocol uses TCP/IP in most cases to exchange information.
HTTP has the HTTPS extension, which supports encryption. The data in it is transmitted over the TLS cryptographic protocol.
NTP – Network Time Protocol
Not all transmission protocols are needed for the exchange of classical information. NTP is a protocol for synchronizing the device’s local clock with network time. It uses the Marzullo algorithm. Thanks to it, the protocol chooses a more accurate time source. NTP works on top of UDP – so it manages to achieve high data transfer rates. The protocol is quite resistant to changes in network delays.
SSH – Secure Shell
A protocol for remote control of an operating system using TCP. In SSH, all traffic is encrypted, and with the ability to choose an encryption algorithm. This is mainly needed to transfer passwords and other important information. SSH is often used when working with hosting, when a client can remotely connect to a server and work from there.